Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Candelaria concolor

 

 

This species name was not found in The Plant List

 

This species has no synonyms in The Plant List

 

Common names:

Lemon Lichen

 

 

Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Candelaria concolor: 85]

 

 

Popularity of Candelaria concolor over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Candelaria concolor (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Candelaria concolor as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

Keywords

[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 388]

 

Lichens (19), Biomonitoring (18), Air pollution (17), Biodiversity (9), Italy (9), Forest management (7), Lichen (7), Cyanolichens (6), Eutrophication (5), Epiphytic lichens (4), Heavy metals (4), Macrolichens (4), Ammonia (3), Bark pH (3), Climate change (3), habitat restoration (3), Nitrogen (3), Red-listed species (3), Species composition (3), Species richness (3), Urban environment (3), Air quality (2), <ARROW Alien species (2), Ammonium (2), Bark (2), Bark features (2), Bioaccumulation (2), bioindicators (2), Climate (2), Community analysis (2), Diversity (2), Electrical conductivity (2), Environmental Classification Factor (2), Epiphyte (2), Evernia prunastri (2), Fungi (2), Global change (2), Grenoble (2), Habitat changes (2), IAP (2), Indicator (2), Land use (2), Landfill (2), Lecanoromycetes (2), Lichen composition (2), Lichen conservation (2), Lichen-forming fungi (2), Lichenized mycota (2), Management regime (2), Mediterranean area (2), Mediterranean Spain (2), Microbiotic soil crust (2), Molecular phylogeny (2), Multivariate analysis (2), Nationally rare lichen species (2), Netherlands (2), Nitrogen tolerance (2), Nitrogen uptake (2), Nitrophytic species (2), NOx (2), Open woodlands (2), pH (2), Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (2), Rare species (2), Restoration (2), Retention trees (2), Sagebrush (2), SO2 (2), Soil pH (2), Soil texture (2), Trace elements (2), TrentepohDOWN>lioid lichens (2), Wood decay (2), acid rain (1), Algae (1), Ancestral character state reconstruction (1), Aosta Valley (1), arctic-alpine (1), Ascoma-types (1), Ascomycota (1), Aspen (1), Atmospheric contamination (1), Atmospheric deposition (1), Atmospheric pollution (1), Autecological indices (1), axenic cultures (1), BayesMultistate (1), BayesTraits (1), benzofurans (1), Biodeterioration (1), Biological monitoring (1), Biskopstorp (1), boreal-montane (1), Candelaria (1), Canelariella (1), Cattle breeding (1)…..

 

[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]

 

bioindicator (87.75), paper pulp (4.45), ornamental (3.94), phytoextractive (1.37), timber (0.46), medicinal (0.35), rubber (0.23), poison (0.17), weed (0.10), grain legume (0.08)…..

 

[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]

 

Boddy L (2016) Chapter 11 - Fungi, Ecosystems, and Global Change. In ‘The Fungi (Third Edition)’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 361-400. (Academic Press: Boston). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123820341000116

Marié DC, Chaparro MAE, Irurzun MA, Lavornia JM, Marinelli C, Cepeda R, Böhnel HN, Castañeda Miranda AG and Sinito AM (2016) Magnetic mapping of air pollution in Tandil city (Argentina) using the lichen Parmotrema pilosum as biomonitor. Atmospheric Pollution Research 7, 513-20. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1309104215300106

Sérgio C, Carvalho P, Garcia CA, Almeida E, Novais V, Sim-Sim M, Jordão H and Sousa AJ (2016) Floristic changes of epiphytic flora in the Metropolitan Lisbon area between 1980–1981 and 2010–2011 related to urban air quality. Ecological Indicators 67, 839-52. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X16301261

Ohmura Y, Matsukura K, Abe J-iP, Hosaka K, Tamaoki M, Dohi T, Kakishima M and Seaward MRD (2015) 137Cs concentrations in foliose lichens within Tsukuba-city as a reflection of radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 141, 38-43. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X14003488

Paoli L, Munzi S, Guttová A, Senko D, Sardella G and Loppi S (2015) Lichens as suitable indicators of the biological effects of atmospheric pollutants around a municipal solid waste incinerator (S Italy). Ecological Indicators 52, 362-70. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X14005949

Casanovas P, Lynch HJ and Fagan WF (2014) Using citizen science to estimate lichen diversity. Biological Conservation 171, 1-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320713004412

Munzi S, Correia O, Silva P, Lopes N, Freitas C, Branquinho C and Pinho P (2014) Lichens as ecological indicators in urban areas: beyond the effects of pollutants. Journal of Applied Ecology 51, 1750-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12304

Nascimbene J, Nimis PL and Dainese M (2014) Epiphytic lichen conservation in the Italian Alps: the role of forest type. Fungal Ecology 11, 164-72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1754504814000944

Werth S and Sork VL (2014) Ecological specialization in Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae) photobionts of Ramalina menziesii (Ramalinaceae) across six range-covering ecoregions of western North America. Am. J. Botany 101, 1127-40. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/abstract/101/7/1127

Arup U, Søchting U and Frödén P (2013) A new taxonomy of the family Teloschistaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 31, 016-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2013.00062.x

Cierjacks A, Kowarik I, Joshi J, Hempel S, Ristow M, von der Lippe M and Weber E (2013) Biological Flora of the British Isles: Robinia pseudoacacia. Journal of Ecology 101, 1623-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12162

Prieto M, Baloch E, Tehler A and Wedin M (2013) Mazaedium evolution in the Ascomycota (Fungi) and the classification of mazaediate groups of formerly unclear relationship. Cladistics 29, 296-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00429.x

Coffey HMP and Fahrig L (2012) Relative effects of vehicle pollution, moisture and colonization sources on urban lichens. Journal of Applied Ecology 49, 1467-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02208.x

Nascimbene J, Nimis PL and Benesperi R (2012) Mature non-native black-locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forest does not regain the lichen diversity of the natural forest. Science of The Total Environment 421–422, 197-202. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969712001325

Paoli L, Corsini A, Bigagli V, Vannini J, Bruscoli C and Loppi S (2012) Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens. Environmental Pollution 161, 70-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749111005525

Root HT and McCune B (2012) Regional patterns of biological soil crust lichen species composition related to vegetation, soils, and climate in Oregon, USA. Journal of Arid Environments 79, 93-100. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014019631100351X

 

 

References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Candelaria concolor: 85; Any undated papers have been included at the end]

 

Arup U, Søchting U and Frödén P (2013) A new taxonomy of the family Teloschistaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 31, 016-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2013.00062.x

Prieto M, Baloch E, Tehler A and Wedin M (2013) Mazaedium evolution in the Ascomycota (Fungi) and the classification of mazaediate groups of formerly unclear relationship. Cladistics 29, 296-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00429.x

Coffey HMP and Fahrig L (2012) Relative effects of vehicle pollution, moisture and colonization sources on urban lichens. Journal of Applied Ecology 49, 1467-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02208.x

Nascimbene J, Nimis PL and Benesperi R (2012) Mature non-native black-locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) forest does not regain the lichen diversity of the natural forest. Science of The Total Environment 421–422, 197-202. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969712001325

Paoli L, Corsini A, Bigagli V, Vannini J, Bruscoli C and Loppi S (2012) Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens. Environmental Pollution 161, 70-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749111005525

Root HT and McCune B (2012) Regional patterns of biological soil crust lichen species composition related to vegetation, soils, and climate in Oregon, USA. Journal of Arid Environments 79, 93-100. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014019631100351X

Käffer MI, Martins SMdA, Alves C, Pereira VC, Fachel J and Vargas VMF (2011) Corticolous lichens as environmental indicators in urban areas in southern Brazil. Ecological Indicators 11, 1319-32. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X11000409

Paoli L, Pisani T, Guttová A, Sardella G and Loppi S (2011) Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: Relationship with the lichen diversity. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74, 650-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651310002964

Aragón G, López R and Martínez I (2010) Effects of Mediterranean dehesa management on epiphytic lichens. Science of The Total Environment 409, 116-22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969710009952

Aragón G, Martínez I, Izquierdo P, Belinchón R and Escudero A (2010) Effects of forest management on epiphytic lichen diversity in Mediterranean forests. Applied Vegetation Science 13, 183-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2009.01060.x

Fritz Ö and Heilmann-Clausen J (2010) Rot holes create key microhabitats for epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on beech (Fagus sylvatica). Biological Conservation 143, 1008-16. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320710000170

Hauck M (2010) Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens. Environmental Pollution 158, 1127-33. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749109006447

Loppi S and Nascimbene J (2010) Monitoring H2S air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy: The pitfall of using lichens as bioindicators. Environmental Pollution 158, 2635-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749110001806

Nascimbene J, Brunialti G, Ravera S, Frati L and Caniglia G (2010) Testing Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. as an indicator of lichen conservation importance of Italian forests. Ecological Indicators 10, 353-60. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X09001149

Nascimbene J and Marini L (2010) Oak forest exploitation and black-locust invasion caused severe shifts in epiphytic lichen communities in Northern Italy. Science of The Total Environment 408, 5506-12. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969710007503

Spier L, van Dobben H and van Dort K (2010) Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras? Environmental Pollution 158, 3607-11. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749110003465

Dias DA and Urban S (2009) Chemical constituents of the lichen, Candelaria concolor: a complete NMR and chemical degradative investigation. Nat Prod Res 23, 925-39.

Fritz Ö, Niklasson M and Churski M (2009) Tree age is a key factor for the conservation of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in beech forests. Applied Vegetation Science 12, 93-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2009.01007.x

Hauck M (2009) Global warming and alternative causes of decline in arctic-alpine and boreal-montane lichens in North-Western Central Europe. Global Change Biology 15, 2653-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01968.x

McCarthy DP, Craig B and Brand U (2009) Chapter 10 Lichen Monitoring of Urban Air Quality, Hamilton, Ontario. In ‘Developments in Environmental Sciences’. (Ed.^(Eds HL Allan) pp. 247-67. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474817708002106

McCarthy DP, Craig B, Brand U and Allan HL (2009) Chapter 10 Lichen Monitoring of Urban Air Quality, Hamilton, Ontario. In ‘Developments in Environmental Science’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 247-67. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474817708002106

Nascimbene J, Salvadori O and Nimis PL (2009) Monitoring lichen recolonization on a restored calcareous statue. Science of The Total Environment 407, 2420-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969708012941

Rogers PC, Moore KD and Ryel RJ (2009) Aspen succession and nitrogen loading: a case for epiphytic lichens as bioindicators in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 20, 498-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.01064.x

Schmitt I, Prado Rd, Grube M and Lumbsch HT (2009) Repeated evolution of closed fruiting bodies is linked to ascoma development in the largest group of lichenized fungi (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52, 34-44. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790309000773

Anonymous (2008) Naturally Occurring Benzofurans. In ‘Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 297-369. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470186992.ch6

Aptroot A (2008) Lichens of St Helena and Ascension Island. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 158, 147-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00797.x

Fenn ME, Jovan S, Yuan F, Geiser L, Meixner T and Gimeno BS (2008) Empirical and simulated critical loads for nitrogen deposition in California mixed conifer forests. Environmental Pollution 155, 492-511. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749108001528

Nascimbene J and Salvadori O (2008) Lichen recolonization on restored calcareous statues of three Venetian villas. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 62, 313-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964830508000541

Paoli L and Loppi S (2008) A biological method to monitor early effects of the air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy. Environmental Pollution 155, 383-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749107005507

Rogers PC and Ryel RJ (2008) Lichen community change in response to succession in aspen forests of the southern Rocky Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 256, 1760-70. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037811270800460X

Anonymous (2007) Mycological Research News. Mycological Research 111, 507-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953756207000937

Aptroot A and van Herk CM (2007) Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts. Environmental Pollution 146, 293-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106002132

Davies L, Bates JW, Bell JNB, James PW and Purvis OW (2007) Diversity and sensitivity of epiphytes to oxides of nitrogen in London. Environmental Pollution 146, 299-310. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106002144

Fenn ME, Geiser L, Bachman R, Blubaugh TJ and Bytnerowicz A (2007) Atmospheric deposition inputs and effects on lichen chemistry and indicator species in the Columbia River Gorge, USA. Environmental Pollution 146, 77-91. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106004052

Frati L, Santoni S, et al. (2007) Lichen biomonitoring of ammonia emission and nitrogen deposition around a pig stockfarm. Environmental Pollution 146, 311-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106002156

Geiser LH and Neitlich PN (2007) Air pollution and climate gradients in western Oregon and Washington indicated by epiphytic macrolichens. Environmental Pollution 145, 203-18. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106002120

Hauck M, Dulamsuren C and Mühlenberg M (2007) Lichen diversity on steppe slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga and its dependence on microclimate. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 202, 530-46. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367253007000746

Isocrono D, Matteucci E, Ferrarese A, Pensi E and Piervittori R (2007) Lichen colonization in the city of Turin (N Italy) based on current and historical data. Environmental Pollution 145, 258-65. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106002181

Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I, Lücking R, Wiklund E and Wedin M (2007) The phylogenetic placement of Ostropales within Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) revisited. Mycological Research 111, 257-67. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953756207000172

Munzi S, Ravera S and Caneva G (2007) Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality in Rome. Environmental Pollution 146, 350-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106002223

Nali C, Balducci E, Frati L, Paoli L, Loppi S and Lorenzini G (2007) Integrated biomonitoring of air quality with plants and lichens: A case study on ambient ozone from central Italy. Chemosphere 67, 2169-76. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653506017863

Nascimbene J, Marini L and Nimis PL (2007) Influence of forest management on epiphytic lichens in a temperate beech forest of northern Italy. Forest Ecology and Management 247, 43-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112707003283

Schiefelbein U and Litterski B (2007) Bibliographie der Flechten und lichenicolen Pilze Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns von 1996 bis 2006. Feddes Repertorium 118, 129-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200711132

Sparrius LB (2007) Response of epiphytic lichen communities to decreasing ammonia air concentrations in a moderately polluted area of The Netherlands. Environmental Pollution 146, 375-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106002259

Westberg M, Arup U and Kärnefelt I (2007) Phylogenetic studies in the Candelariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) based on nuclear ITS DNA sequence data. Mycological Research 111, 1277-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953756207001918

Frati L, Caprasecca E, et al. (2006) Effects of NO2 and NH3 from road traffic on epiphytic lichens. Environmental Pollution 142, 58-64. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749105004872

Gombert S, Asta J and Seaward MRD (2006) Lichens and tobacco plants as complementary biomonitors of air pollution in the Grenoble area (Isère, southeast France). Ecological Indicators 6, 429-43. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X05000506

Miadlikowska J, Kauff F, et al. (2006) New insights into classification and evolution of the Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) from phylogenetic analyses of three ribosomal RNA- and two protein-coding genes. Mycologia 98, 1088-103. http://www.mycologia.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/6/1088

Castello M and Skert N (2005) Evaluation of lichen diversity as an indicator of environmental quality in the North Adriatic submediterranean region. Science of The Total Environment 336, 201-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969704004693

Gombert S, Asta J and Seaward MRD (2005) The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey. Environmental Pollution 135, 501-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749104004063

Gombert S, Asta J and Seaward MRD (2004) Assessment of lichen diversity by index of atmospheric purity (IAP), index of human impact (IHI) and other environmental factors in an urban area (Grenoble, southeast France). Science of The Total Environment 324, 183-99. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969703006442

Loppi S, Frati L, Paoli L, Bigagli V, Rossetti C, Bruscoli C and Corsini A (2004) Biodiversity of epiphytic lichens and heavy metal contents of Flavoparmelia caperata thalli as indicators of temporal variations of air pollution in the town of Montecatini Terme (central Italy). Science of The Total Environment 326, 113-22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896970300679X

Otte V and Rätzel S (2004) Kommentiertes Verzeichnis der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Brandenburgs, Deutschland – zweite Fassung. Feddes Repertorium 115, 134-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200311032

Sipman HJM, Leuckert C, Otte V, Knoph JG and Rux KD (2004) Die Flechten in Willdenows ‘Florae Berolinensis Prodromus’ und ihr Vorkommen im heutigen Berlin. Feddes Repertorium 115, 121-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200311031

Anonymous (2002) Lichens Respond to Global Warming. Mycological Research 106, 867-. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953756208601318

Anonymous (2002) Functional Profiling of a Yeast Genome. Mycological Research 106, 867-. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953756208601306

Giordani P, Brunialti G and Alleteo D (2002) Effects of atmospheric pollution on lichen biodiversity (LB) in a Mediterranean region (Liguria, northwest Italy). Environmental Pollution 118, 53-64. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749101002755

Loppi S, Ivanov D and Boccardi R (2002) Biodiversity of epiphytic lichens and air pollution in the town of Siena (Central Italy). Environmental Pollution 116, 123-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749101001518

Scerbo R, Ristori T, Possenti L, Lampugnani L, Barale R and Barghigiani C (2002) Lichen (Xanthoria parietina) biomonitoring of trace element contamination and air quality assessment in Pisa Province (Tuscany, Italy). The Science of The Total Environment 286, 27-40. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969701009597

Conti ME and Cecchetti G (2001) Biological monitoring: lichens as bioindicators of air pollution assessment—a review. Environmental Pollution 114, 471-92. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749100002244

Coste C (2001) Flore et végétation lichéniques épiphytes du parc de Lostange (France, Tarn). Cryptogamie Mycologie 22, 209-23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0181158401010697

Giordani P, Brunialti G and Modenesi P (2001) Applicability of the lichen biodiversity method (L.B.) to a Mediterranean area (Liguria, nw Italy). Cryptogamie Mycologie 22, 193-208. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S018115840101065X

Otte V (2001) Flechten und Moose im Gebiet des Bolschoi Tchatsch (NW-Kaukasus) — eine erste Übersicht, ergänzt durch einige von D. Benkert bestimmte Pezizales. Feddes Repertorium 112, 565-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fedr.4921120712

Peterson EB and McCune B (2001) Diversity and succession of epiphytic macrolichen communities in low-elevation managed conifer forests in Western Oregon. Journal of Vegetation Science 12, 511-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3237003

Beck A, Friedl T and Rambold G (1998) Selectivity of photobiont choice in a defined lichen community: inferences from cultural and molecular studies. New Phytologist 139, 709-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.1998.00231.x

Loppi S and Nascimbene J (1998) Lichen bioindication of air quality in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (Tuscany, Italy). Geothermics 27, 295-304. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375650598000030

Neitlich PN and McCune B (1997) Hotspots of Epiphytic Lichen Diversity in Two Young Managed Forests. Conservation Biology 11, 172-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.95492.x

Brown DH (1995) [British Plant Life, No. 3.]A. Orange, Lichens on Trees. A Guide to Some of the Commonest Species Price £3.50 (£4.00 by post), National Museum of Wales, Cardiff (1994) ISBN 0 7200 0400 4, p. 48. The Lichenologist 27, 237-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024282905800246

Coppins BJ (1995) [Special report series (ISSN 0843 6452) no. 8.]T. Goward, B. McCune and Del Meidinger, The Lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated Keys. Part 1--Foliose and Squamulose Species 9 figures, c. 350 line drawings, 124 maps, 2 tables. Price C$34.24 (including postage and packing), available from Crown Publications Inc., 546 Yates Street, Victoria, B.C. V8W 1KB, Canada, Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. (1994), p. 181. The Lichenologist 27, 237-. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024282905800234

Crittenden PD, David JC, Hawksworth DL and Campbell FS (1995) Attempted isolation and success in the culturing of a broad spectrum of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi. New Phytologist 130, 267-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1995.tb03048.x

Henderson A (1995) Literature on air pollution and lichens XLI. The Lichenologist 27, 225-34. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024282905800210

Palmer FE, Staley JT and Ryan B (1990) Ecophysiology of microcolonial fungi and lichens on rocks in northeastern Oregon. New Phytologist 116, 613-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1990.tb00546.x

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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni-search-full.html; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium http://www.ipni.org/index.html; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service http://plants.usda.gov/;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct http://www.sciencedirect.com/; Wiley Online Library http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/advanced/search; High Wire http://highwire.stanford.edu/cgi/search; Oxford Journals http://services.oxfordjournals.org/search.dtl; USDA National Agricultural Library http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/booleancube/booleancube_search_cit.html; for synonyms: The Plant List http://www.theplantlist.org/; for common names: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page; etc.


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