Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Combretum imberbe

 

 

This species is usually known as:

Combretum imberbe

 

This species has also been known as:

Combretum imberbe var. dielsii, Combretum imberbe var. petersii

 

Common names:

Leadwood, Hardekool, Mohwelere-Tšhipi, Motswiri, Impondondlovu

 

 

Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Combretum imberbe: 111]

 

 

Popularity of Combretum imberbe over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Combretum imberbe (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Combretum imberbe as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

Keywords

[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 665]

 

Combretaceae (8), Combretum imberbe (8), Savanna (8), Kruger National Park (7), Combretum (6), Antimicrobial (5), Botswana (5), South Africa (5), Traditional medicine (5), Grazing (4), Hydrology (4), medicinal plants (4), monitoring (4), vegetation (4), woody plants (4), Africa (3), African savanna (3), Arsenic (3), Biomass (3), Climate change (3), Colophospermum mopane (3), Ephemeral river (3), <ARROW Fabaceae (3), fire (3), flora (3), Herbivory (3), Internet resource (3), Lead (3), Leaf deposits (3), Morphology (3), Point bar (3), Savanna dynamics (3), Southern Africa (3), Spatial (3), Taphonomy (3), Terminalia (3), Vegetation mapping (3), Water provision (3), Zimbabwe (3), AAS (2), Abrus (2), Allometric equations (2), Allometry (2), Alpine meadow (2), Antibacterial (2), Anti-inflammatory (2), Antioxidants (2), Antiviral (2), Basal area (2), Bioactive constituent (2), Bush thickening (2), Canopy cover (2), Carbon (2), Carnegie Airborne Observatory (2), Cattle (2), Chemical composition (2), Chromium (2), Classification (2), Coprophilous fungi (2), Culling (2), Database (2), Dung deposition (2), Ecosystem engineering (2), Ecotone (2), Elephant impact (2), Elephant utilisation (2), Endemism (2), Entry inhibitor (2), Ethnobotany (2), Ethnopharmacology (2), Faidherbia (2), Faidherbia albida (2), Floods (2), Foodborne pathogens (2), Forest fire (2), Functional traits (2), Grass (2), Heterogeneity (2), HIV-1DOWN>c (MJ4) (2), Hyperspectral remote sensing (2), Indigenous knowledge (2), Kaokoveld (2), Knowledge distribution (2), Land use (2), Landscape sculpting (2), Leaf nutrient concentration (2), Legumes composition (2), Leguminosae (2), LiDAR (2), LiDAR WorldView-2 (2), Lowveld (2), Loxodonta africana (2), Malawi (2), Mesophyllous (2), Metasequoia glyptostroboides (2), Microphyllous (2), Mozambique (2), Muda (2), Namibia (2), NDVI threshold (2), Neglected diseases (2), Nickel (2)…..

 

[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]

 

timber (38.87), fuelwood (30.91), tannin (5.34), medicinal (3.05), weed (2.55), poison (1.73), charcoal (1.67), fruit (1.59), starch (1.57), sweetener (1.03)…..

 

[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]

 

Antonites A (2016) The organization of salt production in early first millennium CE South Africa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 44, Part A, 31-42. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278416516300976

Berry PSM and Bercovitch FB (2016) Seasonal and geographical influences on the feeding ecology of giraffes in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia: 1973–2014. African Journal of Ecology, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12324

Charles-Dominique T, Davies TJ, Hempson GP, Bezeng BS, Daru BH, Kabongo RM, Maurin O, Muasya AM, van der Bank M and Bond WJ (2016) Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas. PNAS 113, E5572-9. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/113/38/E5572

Chinsembu KC (2016) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 26, 268-74. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0102695X16000090

Davies AB, Baldeck CA and Asner GP (2016) Termite mounds alter the spatial distribution of African savanna tree species. Journal of Biogeography 43, 301-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12633

Hutson JM (2016) A neotaphonomic view of prey demographics and predator preferences at Ngamo Pan, Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 441, Part 4, 936-48. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018215006215

Sileshi GW (2016) Termite mounds alter the spatial distribution of African savanna tree species: artefacts and real patterns. Journal of Biogeography, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12865

Tsheboeng G, Murray-Hudson M and Kashe K (2016) Response of riparian plant communities to distance from surface water in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12364

Urso V, Signorini MA, Tonini M and Bruschi P (2016) Wild medicinal and food plants used by communities living in Mopane woodlands of southern Angola: Results of an ethnobotanical field investigation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 177, 126-39. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874115302439

Baumgartner SA, Treydte AC, Grant CC and van Rooyen J (2015) Can diverse herbivore communities increase landscape heterogeneity? Comparing wild and domestic herbivore assemblages in a South African savanna. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 17, 34-43. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1433831914001024

Chinsembu KC, Hijarunguru A and Mbangu A (2015) Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Rundu, Kavango East Region, Namibia. South African Journal of Botany 100, 33-42. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025462991500294X

Dzerefos CM, Erasmus BFN, Witkowski ETF and Guo D (2015) Modelling the current and future dry-season distribution of the edible stinkbug Encosternum delegorguei in sub-Saharan Africa. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 156, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eea.12309

Levick SR, Baldeck CA and Asner GP (2015) Demographic legacies of fire history in an African savanna. Functional Ecology 29, 131-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12306

Pellegrini AFA, Hedin LO, Staver AC and Govender N (2015) Fire alters ecosystem carbon and nutrients but not plant nutrient stoichiometry or composition in tropical savanna. Ecology 96, 1275-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-1158.1

Baldeck CA, Colgan MS, Féret JB, Levick SR, Martin RE and Asner GP (2014) Landscape-scale variation in plant community composition of an African savanna from airborne species mapping. Ecological Applications 24, 84-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-0307.1

Blaser WJ, Shanungu GK, Edwards PJ and Olde Venterink H (2014) Woody encroachment reduces nutrient limitation and promotes soil carbon sequestration. Ecology and Evolution 4, 1423-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1024

Chinsembu KC, Negumbo J, Likando M and Mbangu A (2014) An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used to treat livestock diseases in Onayena and Katima Mulilo, Namibia. South African Journal of Botany 94, 101-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629914001203

Colgan MS and Asner GP (2014) Coexistence and environmental filtering of species-specific biomass in an African savanna. Ecology 95, 1579-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1160.1

Holdo RM and Mack MC (2014) Functional attributes of savanna soils: contrasting effects of tree canopies and herbivores on bulk density, nutrients and moisture dynamics. Journal of Ecology 102, 1171-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12290

Killick D and Miller D (2014) Smelting of magnetite and magnetite–ilmenite iron ores in the northern Lowveld, South Africa, ca. 1000 CE to ca. 1880 CE. Journal of Archaeological Science 43, 239-55. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440313004469

Koriem KMM (2014) Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia: a review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 4, 768-79. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169115300150

Mangoyi R, Chitemerere T, Chimponda T, Chirisa E and Mukanganyama S (2014) Multiple Anti-Infective Properties of Selected Plant Species from Zimbabwe. In ‘Novel Plant Bioresources’. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 179-90. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118460566.ch14

O’Shaughnessy R, Cain JW, III and Owen-Smith N (2014) Comparative diet and habitat selection of puku and lech we in northern Botswana. J Mammal 95, 933-42. http://jmammal.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/95/5/933

Vogel SM, Henley MD, Rode SC, van de Vyver D, Meares KF, Simmons G and de Boer WF (2014) Elephant (Loxodonta africana) impact on trees used by nesting vultures and raptors in South Africa. African Journal of Ecology 52, 458-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12140

Affum AO, Shiloh DO and Adomako D (2013) Monitoring of arsenic levels in some ready-to-use anti-malaria herbal products from drug sales outlets in the Madina area of Accra, Ghana. Food and Chemical Toxicology 56, 131-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691513000975

Broekhuis F, Cozzi G, Valeix M, McNutt JW and Macdonald DW (2013) Risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive? Journal of Animal Ecology 82, 1098-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12077

Colgan MS, Asner GP and Swemmer T (2013) Harvesting tree biomass at the stand level to assess the accuracy of field and airborne biomass estimation in savannas. Ecological Applications 23, 1170-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-0922.1

Dunham KM and du Toit AJ (2013) Using citizen-based survey data to determine densities of large mammals: a case study from Mana Pools National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 51, 431-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12052

Jacobson PJ and Jacobson KM (2013) Hydrologic controls of physical and ecological processes in Namib Desert ephemeral rivers: Implications for conservation and management. Journal of Arid Environments 93, 80-93. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196312000420

Juergens N, Oldeland J, Hachfeld B, Erb E and Schultz C (2013) Ecology and spatial patterns of large-scale vegetation units within the central Namib Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 93, 59-79. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196312002522

Sandjo LP and Kuete V (2013) 4 - Triterpenes and Steroids from the Medicinal Plants of Africa. In ‘Medicinal Plant Research in Africa’. (Ed.^(Eds Kuete V) pp. 135-202. (Elsevier: Oxford). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124059276000047

Smit IPJ, Smit CF, Govender N, Linde Mvd and MacFadyen S (2013) Rainfall, geology and landscape position generate large-scale spatiotemporal fire pattern heterogeneity in an African savanna. Ecography 36, 447-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07555.x

Watling J and Iriarte J (2013) Phytoliths from the coastal savannas of French Guiana. Quaternary International 287, 162-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618212032417

Aremu AO, Finnie JF and Van Staden J (2012) Potential of South African medicinal plants used as anthelmintics – Their efficacy, safety concerns and reappraisal of current screening methods. South African Journal of Botany 82, 134-50. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629912000671

Cho MA, Mathieu R, Asner GP, Naidoo L, van Aardt J, Ramoelo A, Debba P, Wessels K, Main R, Smit IPJ and Erasmus B (2012) Mapping tree species composition in South African savannas using an integrated airborne spectral and LiDAR system. Remote Sensing of Environment 125, 214-26. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425712002842

Haynes G (2012) Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers. Geomorphology 157–158, 99-107. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X1100314X

Higgins SI, Bond WJ, Combrink H, Craine JM, February EC, Govender N, Lannas K, Moncreiff G and Trollope WSW (2012) Which traits determine shifts in the abundance of tree species in a fire-prone savanna? Journal of Ecology 100, 1400-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02026.x

Jiang C, Yu G, Li Y, Cao G, Yang Z, Sheng W and Yu W (2012) Nutrient resorption of coexistence species in alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau explains plant adaptation to nutrient-poor environment. Ecological Engineering 44, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857412001243

Katerere DR, Gray AI, Nash RJ and Waigh RD (2012) Phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations of stilbenoids and flavonoids isolated from three species of Combretaceae. Fitoterapia 83, 932-40. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367326X12001189

Leteane MM, Ngwenya BN, Muzila M, Namushe A, Mwinga J, Musonda R, Moyo S, Mengestu YB, Abegaz BM and Andrae-Marobela K (2012) Old plants newly discovered: Cassia sieberiana D.C. and Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Oliv. root extracts inhibit in vitro HIV-1c replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by different modes of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141, 48-56. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112000578

Okatch H, Ngwenya B, Raletamo K and Andrae-Marobela K (2012) Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana. Anal Chim Acta 730, 42-8.

Okatch H, Ngwenya B, Raletamo KM and Andrae-Marobela K (2012) Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana. Analytica Chimica Acta 730, 42-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267011016357

Okatch H, Ngwenya B, Raletamo KM and Andrae-Marobela K (2012) Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana. Analytica chimica acta. 12, 730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.11.067

Smit IPJ and Asner GP (2012) Roads increase woody cover under varying geological, rainfall and fire regimes in African savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 80, 74-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196311003600

 

 

References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Combretum imberbe: 111; Any undated papers have been included at the end]

 

Affum AO, Shiloh DO and Adomako D (2013) Monitoring of arsenic levels in some ready-to-use anti-malaria herbal products from drug sales outlets in the Madina area of Accra, Ghana. Food and Chemical Toxicology 56, 131-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691513000975

Broekhuis F, Cozzi G, Valeix M, McNutt JW and Macdonald DW (2013) Risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive? Journal of Animal Ecology 82, 1098-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12077

Dunham KM and du Toit AJ (2013) Using citizen-based survey data to determine densities of large mammals: a case study from Mana Pools National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 51, 431-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12052

Jacobson PJ and Jacobson KM (2013) Hydrologic controls of physical and ecological processes in Namib Desert ephemeral rivers: Implications for conservation and management. Journal of Arid Environments 93, 80-93. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196312000420

Juergens N, Oldeland J, Hachfeld B, Erb E and Schultz C (2013) Ecology and spatial patterns of large-scale vegetation units within the central Namib Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 93, 59-79. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196312002522

Sandjo LP and Kuete V (2013) 4 - Triterpenes and Steroids from the Medicinal Plants of Africa. In ‘Medicinal Plant Research in Africa’. (Ed.^(Eds V Kuete) pp. 135-202. (Elsevier: Oxford). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124059276000047

Smit IPJ, Smit CF, Govender N, Linde Mvd and MacFadyen S (2013) Rainfall, geology and landscape position generate large-scale spatiotemporal fire pattern heterogeneity in an African savanna. Ecography 36, 447-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07555.x

Watling J and Iriarte J (2013) Phytoliths from the coastal savannas of French Guiana. Quaternary International 287, 162-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618212032417

Aremu AO, Finnie JF and Van Staden J (2012) Potential of South African medicinal plants used as anthelmintics – Their efficacy, safety concerns and reappraisal of current screening methods. South African Journal of Botany 82, 134-50. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629912000671

Cho MA, Mathieu R, et al. (2012) Mapping tree species composition in South African savannas using an integrated airborne spectral and LiDAR system. Remote Sensing of Environment 125, 214-26. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425712002842

Haynes G (2012) Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers. Geomorphology 157–158, 99-107. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X1100314X

Higgins SI, Bond WJ, Combrink H, Craine JM, February EC, Govender N, Lannas K, Moncreiff G and Trollope WSW (2012) Which traits determine shifts in the abundance of tree species in a fire-prone savanna? Journal of Ecology 100, 1400-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02026.x

Jiang C, Yu G, Li Y, Cao G, Yang Z, Sheng W and Yu W (2012) Nutrient resorption of coexistence species in alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau explains plant adaptation to nutrient-poor environment. Ecological Engineering 44, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857412001243

Katerere DR, Gray AI, Nash RJ and Waigh RD (2012) Phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations of stilbenoids and flavonoids isolated from three species of Combretaceae. Fitoterapia 83, 932-40. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367326X12001189

Leteane MM, Ngwenya BN, et al. (2012) Old plants newly discovered: Cassia sieberiana D.C. and Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Oliv. root extracts inhibit in vitro HIV-1c replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by different modes of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141, 48-56. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112000578

Okatch H, Ngwenya B, Raletamo KM and Andrae-Marobela K (2012) Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana. Analytica Chimica Acta 730, 42-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267011016357

Smit IPJ and Asner GP (2012) Roads increase woody cover under varying geological, rainfall and fire regimes in African savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 80, 74-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196311003600

Bajpai VK and Kang SC (2011) ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM METASEQUOIA GLYPTOSTROBOIDES MIKI EX HU. Journal of Food Safety 31, 276-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.2011.00298.x

Bruschi P, Morganti M, Mancini M and Signorini MA (2011) Traditional healers and laypeople: A qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138, 543-63. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874111007276

Dlamini W (2011) Probabilistic spatio-temporal assessment of vegetation vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland. Global Change Biology 17, 1425-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02317.x

Gandiwa E, Magwati T, Zisadza P, Chinuwo T and Tafangenyasha C (2011) The impact of African elephants on Acacia tortilis woodland in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Journal of Arid Environments 75, 809-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196311001194

Lhermitte S, Verbesselt J, Verstraeten WW, Veraverbeke S and Coppin P (2011) Assessing intra-annual vegetation regrowth after fire using the pixel based regeneration index. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 66, 17-27. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924271610000675

Poilecot P and Gaidet N (2011) A quantitative study of the grass and woody layers of a Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) savannah in the mid-Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 49, 150-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2010.01241.x

Shackleton CM and Scholes RJ (2011) Above ground woody community attributes, biomass and carbon stocks along a rainfall gradient in the savannas of the central lowveld, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 77, 184-92. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629910001924

Smit IPJ (2011) Resources driving landscape-scale distribution patterns of grazers in an African savanna. Ecography 34, 67-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06029.x

Swanepoel W and Kolberg H (2011) Abrus kaokoensis (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae-Abreae), a new species from Namibia. South African Journal of Botany 77, 613-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629910002681

Bajpai VK, Na M and Kang SC (2010) The role of bioactive substances in controlling foodborne pathogens derived from Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 1945-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691510002553

Boggs GS (2010) Assessment of SPOT 5 and QuickBird remotely sensed imagery for mapping tree cover in savannas. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 12, 217-24. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303243409001068

Boyes RS and Perrin MR (2010) Do Meyer’s Parrots Poicephalus meyeri benefit pollination and seed dispersal of plants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana? African Journal of Ecology 48, 769-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01177.x

Ekblom A and Gillson L (2010) Dung fungi as indicators of past herbivore abundance, Kruger and Limpopo National Park. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 296, 14-27. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003101821000341X

February EC and Higgins SI (2010) The distribution of tree and grass roots in savannas in relation to soil nitrogen and water. South African Journal of Botany 76, 517-23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025462991000133X

Hamandawana H and Chanda R (2010) Natural and human dimensions of environmental change in the proximal reaches of Botswana’s Okavango Delta. Geographical Journal 176, 58-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4959.2009.00339.x

Hofmann C-C and Rice AHN (2010) Leaf-jams — A new and unique leaf deposit in the ephemeral Hoanib River, NW Namibia: Origin and plant taphonomic implications. International Journal of Coal Geology 83, 195-203. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166516209001530

Kalogeropoulos N, Chiou A, Ioannou M, Karathanos VT, Hassapidou M and Andrikopoulos NK (2010) Nutritional evaluation and bioactive microconstituents (phytosterols, tocopherols, polyphenols, triterpenic acids) in cooked dry legumes usually consumed in the Mediterranean countries. Food Chemistry 121, 682-90. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814610000452

Leggett K (2010) Daily and hourly movement of male desert-dwelling elephants. African Journal of Ecology 48, 197-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01101.x

Masoko P, Picard J, Howard RL, Mampuru LJ and Eloff JN (2010) In vivo antifungal effect of Combretum and Terminalia species extracts on cutaneous wound healing in immunosuppressed rats. Pharmaceutical biology. 48, 621–32.

Maurin O, Chase MW, Jordaan M and Van Der Bank M (2010) Phylogenetic relationships of Combretaceae inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data: implications for generic classification. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 162, 453-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01027.x

Smit IPJ and Ferreira SM (2010) Management intervention affects river-bound spatial dynamics of elephants. Biological Conservation 143, 2172-81. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320710002673

Treydte AC, Riginos C and Jeltsch F (2010) Enhanced use of beneath-canopy vegetation by grazing ungulates in African savannahs. Journal of Arid Environments 74, 1597-603. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196310002089

Dzerefos CM, Witkowski ETF and Toms R (2009) Life-history traits of the edible stinkbug, Encosternum delegorguei (Hem., Tessaratomidae), a traditional food in southern Africa. Journal of applied entomology Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie. 133, 749-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.2009.01425.x

Khomo L and Rogers KH (2009) Stream order controls geomorphic heterogeneity and plant distribution in a savanna landscape. Austral Ecology 34, 170-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2008.01918.x

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Gil-Romera G, Scott L, Marais E and Brook GA (2007) Late Holocene environmental change in the northwestern Namib Desert margin: New fossil pollen evidence from hyrax middens. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 249, 1-17. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018207000211

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Ringrose S, Vanderpost C, Matheson W, Wolski P, Huntsman-Mapila P, Murray-Hudson M and Jellema A (2007) Indicators of desiccation-driven change in the distal Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Arid Environments 68, 88-112. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196306001285

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Gil-Romera G, Scott L, Marais E and Brook GA (2006) Middle-to late-Holocene moisture changes in the desert of northwest Namibia derived from fossil hyrax dung pollen. The Holocene 16, 1073-84. http://hol.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/16/8/1073

Haynes G (2006) Mammoth landscapes: good country for hunter-gatherers. Quaternary International 142-143, 20-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618205000510

Kowero G and Mabugu R (2006) Macroeconomic policies and industrial wood processing and trade in Zimbabwe. Forest Policy and Economics 8, 22-34. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389934104000826

Mathabe MC, Nikolova RV, Lall N and Nyazema NZ (2006) Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105, 286-93. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874106000870

Murray-Hudson M, Wolski P and Ringrose S (2006) Scenarios of the impact of local and upstream changes in climate and water use on hydro-ecology in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Hydrology 331, 73-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002216940600254X

Scott Bechtold J and Naiman RJ (2006) Soil texture and nitrogen mineralization potential across a riparian toposequence in a semi-arid savanna. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38, 1325-33. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003807170500369X

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Materechera SA and Mkhabela TS (2001) Influence of land-use on properties of a ferralitic soil under low external input farming in southeastern Swaziland. Soil and Tillage Research 62, 15-25. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167198701002021

O’Connor TG (2001) Effect of small catchment dams on downstream vegetation of a seasonal river in semi-arid African savanna. Journal of applied ecology. 38, 1314-25.

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Shackleton CM (2000) Comparison of plant diversity in protected and communal lands in the Bushbuckridge lowveld savanna, South Africa. Biological Conservation 94, 273-85. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000632070000001X

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Shackleton CM (1998) Annual production of harvestable deadwood in semi-arid savannas, South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 112, 139-44. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112798003211

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Clark TE, Appleton CC and Drewes SE (1997) A semi-quantitative approach to the selection of appropriate candidate plant molluscicides—a South African application. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56, 1-13. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887419601495X

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Mahato SB and Nandy AK (1991) Triterpenoid saponins discovered between 1987 and 1989. Phytochemistry 30, 1357-90. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003194229184170W

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Chinemana F, Drummond RB, Mavi S and De Zoysa I Indigenous plant remedies in Zimbabwe. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 14, 159-72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0378874185900844

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Gandiwa E, Magwati T, Zisadza P, Chinuwo T and Tafangenyasha C The impact of African elephants on Acacia tortilis woodland in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Journal of Arid Environments 75, 809-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196311001194

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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni-search-full.html; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium http://www.ipni.org/index.html; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service http://plants.usda.gov/;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct http://www.sciencedirect.com/; Wiley Online Library http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/advanced/search; High Wire http://highwire.stanford.edu/cgi/search; Oxford Journals http://services.oxfordjournals.org/search.dtl; USDA National Agricultural Library http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/booleancube/booleancube_search_cit.html; for synonyms: The Plant List http://www.theplantlist.org/; for common names: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page; etc.


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